South Africa under apartheid.

1990 Cape Town A family buries a child that died of gastroenteritis, a preventable condition but major cause of infant death due to poor health facilities and education. 1988 A non-white worker stands behind the gate of a whites only beach at Victoria Bay. 1990 A woman picks potatoes as a day labourer. 1988 A woman protests in an illegal rally in Cape Town. 1990 Cape Town A boy waves an ANC flag on the day Nelson Mandela was released from prison. 1990 Cape Town Nelson Mandela on the day after his release from prison. 1990 Cape Town  Women in the township respond to the news that big changes will come to South Africa.
1990 Cape Town  Township residents celebrate the day Nelson Mandela is released from prison.

Smuts Ngonyama

Regional ANC leader Smuts Ngonyama - "The Lion Of The Border" - struggled to survive and remain non-violent while under three years of assassination attempts by Ciskei forces during the 1990-1994 transitional period.

Smuts had difficult decisions to make during the 1990-1994 transitional period. The Ciskei Homeland troops were responsible for many assassinations of opposing ANC members during the transitional period. Ngonyama was at the top of their hit list. Ngonyama prays with a family the morning after a nighttime attack on their home, killing three people. Ngonyama speaks out against the homeland government at the funeral of an ANC colleague who was assassinated by troops throwing a hand grenade onto his porch. Ngonyama was especially close to his two-year-old son and longed for him when they were separated by the need for Ngonyama to stay in other locations. Ngonyama joins a Prayer for Peace meeting he called for at East London City Hall when tensions were especially high after the assassination of the popular leader Chris Hani.


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